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【长难句分析与翻译】同位语从句与长难句分析

时间:2019-03-17来源:舍己为人网

作文「同位语从句与长难句分析」共有 7525 个字,其中有 2444 个汉字,4570 个英文,51 个数字,460 个标点符号。作者佚名,请您欣赏。玛雅作文网荟萃众多优秀学生作文,如果想要浏览更多相关作文,请使用网站顶部的作文搜索引擎进行搜索。本站作文虽然不乏优秀之作,但仅为同学们学习交流的习作,不能当作范文使用,希望对同学们有所帮助。

第一部分:同位语从句
一、同位语从句前常用的名词
同位语从句说明的名词常见的有:ability, advice, answer, belief, doubt, discovery, fact, fear, hope, idea, information, message, news, order, possibility, problem, proposal, question, story, suggestion, theory, thought, word(消息)等。而不可说明的名词是不会接同位语从句的。比如:man, water, sun等具体的人或事物。例如:
There is no doubt that the prices of cars will go down.
The belief that the company will make a great effort is shared by everyone.
They are familiar with the opinion that all matter consists of atoms.
二、同位语从句与定语从句的区别
第一,意义的不同。
同位语从句是用于说明所修饰名词的具体内容的,它与被修饰词语通常可以划等号;而定语从句是限制所修饰名词的,它的作用是将所修饰的名词与其他类似的东西区别开来:
We are glad at the news that he will come. 听到他要来这个消息我们很高兴。(news的内容就是that he will come,故that引导的是同位语从句)
We are glad at the news that he told us. 听到他告诉我们的这个消息我们很高兴。(that从句是限制the news的内容的,即我们高兴只是因为他告诉的这个news而不是其他的news,故that从句为定语从句)
第二,引导词的不同。
what, how, if, whatever 等可引导名词性从句,但不引导定语从句。
第三,引导词功能上的不同。
that引导同位语从句时本身无词义,它不充当句子成分,但不可以省略,也不可用which 来替换;而that引导定语从句时,它作为关系代词,要么充当定语从句的主语,要么充当定语从句的宾语,充当宾语时可以省略,有时还可以用which来引导。如上例 that he told us中的that就充当told的宾语。
第四,被修饰词语的区别。
同位语从句所修饰的名词比较有限,通常有hope, wish, idea, news, fact, promise, opinion, suggestion, truth等,而定语从句所修饰的名词则非常广泛。 另外,when和where 引导定语从句时,通常只修饰表示时间和地点的名词,而它们引导同位语从句时却不一定;又如why引导定语从句,它通常只修饰名词the reason,而它引导同位语从句时则不一定。
I have no idea when they will come. 我不知道他们什么时候来。(同位语从句)
Ill never forget the days when I lived there. 我永远不会忘记我住在那儿的日子。(定语从句)
We dont understand the problem why this is the best choice. 我们不明白这个问题,为什么这是最好的选择。(同位语从句)
三、由whether引导同位语从句不可以用if替换
Answer my question whether you are coming. 你回答我的问题:你来不来。
We are not investigating the question whether he is trustworthy. 我们不是在调查他是否可以信任的问题。
另外,where, when, why, how, who, what等在引导同位语从句时,一般只宝鸡看癫痫病专业的医院用于I have no idea结构中。其实,这种类型的同位语从句应该列入宾语从句的范畴,因为I have no idea意思就是I dont know...;例如:
I have no idea where I should go.
I have no idea how I can get to the railway station.
四、分离同位语从句
同位语从句一般接在被解释的名词后面,但有时因谓语太短而分开。例如:
The story goes that he beats his wife. 传说他打老婆。
The news got about that he had won a car in the lottery. 消息传开说他中彩得了一辆汽车。
Report has it that the Smiths are leaving town. 有传言说史密斯一家要离开这座城市。
第二部分:巧析英语长难句
在近几年英语高考试题中对学生英语能力水平的考查呈上升趋势。长难句由于其结构复杂, 语句难懂等原因, 在学习过程中给大部分学生的学习带来了极大的阻碍。其实只要摆正心态并掌握一定的方法, 长难句还是较容易解决的。
英语长句也就是复杂句,里面可能会有多个从句,从句与从句之间的关系可能为并列、包含与被包含、镶嵌等形式。因此分析长难句或者翻译长难句,首要解决的应该是弄清楚从句以及从句之间的关系。英语经常出现的复合句包括:名词性从句,它又包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句;形容词性从句,即定语从句;另外还有一种叫做状语从句。 那么,怎样来分析长难句呢?
一、分析固定搭配
固定搭配在长句中多用于连接句子与句子或分句与分句,如as...as..., more than (more... than), either... or...等。这些词在简单句中较容易识别, 但在长句中这些词之间的跨度较长, 增加了分析的难度。请看这个句子:
Scientists attempt to explain these phenomena in terms of social relationships either between the richer and the poorer or between those already succeeded and those who make nothing.
“Scientists attempt to explain these phenomena”为该句的主干,后面的部分是in terms of作状语来修饰主句中的动词不定式。固定搭配either...or...连接两个between... and...来修饰relationships。至此,本句的结构已非常清晰了。该句可理解为:科学家们试图对这些现象做出解释,所依据的要么是“the richer”与“the poorer”之间的关系,要么是“those already succeeded”与“those who make nothing”之间的关系。
二、分清主谓结构及各种从句
长句突出的特点之一是从句较多,成分复杂。有些学生在分析一句话时发现了好几个谓语,这说明对句子的理解出现了问题。其实,只要我们在分析句子时找准主干,然后再对其他成分进行划分,就能理清句子的脉络。如在高中课本中有这样一句:
The answer seems to be that we have a need to study in touch with friends and family no matter where we are or what we are doing.
由于该句的结构表面上看起来很复杂,很多学生在分析的时候弄错了。该句的主干其实就是“The answer seems to be...”。很显然, 后面是一个表语从句和一个由no matter where所引导的让步状语从句。
三、注意标点符号和插入成分
在汉语中,插入成分一般用破折号或括号来表示出来,而英语则多用逗号或破折号。因此,我们在分析长句时一定要注意标点符号的运用。现举一例来说明:
The appreciation of ancient Chinese poems by the difficulty, even rare satisfying translations, of completely conveying the original structure and tone.
这句话的关键在于插入语把句子的完整性给打乱了。我们在分析该宝鸡较好的癫痫病医院是哪家句时可把中间的插入语“even rare satisfying translations”提出来,这样句子就变成The appreciation of ancient Chinese poems has been limited by A and B结构,自然清楚易懂了。
一般来说, 插入语多介入两个破折号或两个逗号之间, 我们解决的办法是缓读甚至不读(尤其在阅读理解试题中, 在句子主干中捕捉到的重要信息已足够了)。
四、分析平行结构
平行结构较简单, 多用表并列的连词如and,but,as well等将几个简单句连接在一起。 我们在分析这类句子时只要注意相关并列连词就不会出现太大的问题。
以上简要地谈了一下句子结构分析的几点方法, 当然, 要准确地去分析、理解较复杂的句子决非易事,这更需要我们平时精心的分析和大量的练习。
巩固练习
用同位语译出下列句子
1. 有传言说史密斯一家要离开这座城市。
2. 采纳新规则的建议是主席提出的。
3. 不久命令下来,所有居民都必须撤出村子。
4. 他是否会来还不一定。
5. 这个是对还是错要看结果。
6. 我们听到消息说我们队赢了。
7. 他们为你生病发愁。
8. 允许妇女参加这个协会的决议通过了。
9. 他们表示希望她接受这笔奖金。
10. 有一项建议是布朗应该离队。
参考答案
1. Report has it that the Smiths are leaving town.
2. The suggestion that the new rule be adopted came from the chairman.
3. The order soon came that all citizens should evacuate the village.
4. There is some doubt whether he will come.
5. The question whether it is right or wrong depends on the result.
6. We heard the news that our team had won.
7. They were worried over the fact that you were sick.
8. The resolution that women be allowed to join the society was carried.
9. They expressed the wish that she accept the award.
10. There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team.
(作者:康传桂,海安县李堡中学)

以下就是100留学为大家整理的雅思长难句句式分析之同位语。希望对各位考生的备考有所帮助:

同位语

1 定义

同位语的定义为两个名词或代词,比较靠近,可以作相同的成分,并且第二个名词起到补充解释说明第一个名词的作用。比如,Mr. Smith, our new teacher, is very kind to us Mr.Smithour new teacher这两个名词都可以做主语,our new teacher补充解释说明Mr. Smith,所以它就是Mr. Smith的同位语。

TOEFL & IELTS考试中,同位语并不是很多。并且,第二个单词往往会带有一个比较长的定语从句来补充解释说明第一个单词。

1.

They must also keep swimming to keep fromsinking, since most have largely or completely lost the swim bladder, thegas-filled sac that helps most other fish remain buoyant.治疗癫痫好医院an>

【解析】

在该句中,the gas-filled sacthe swim bladder的同位语,它们都是名词,并且the gas-filledsac后有一个后置定语从句来修饰。



【答案】

They must also keep swimming to keep fromsinking, since most have largely or completely lost the swim bladder, thegas-filled sac [that helps most other fish remain buoyant].

2.

A 2003 Mars Global Surveyor image showswhat mission specialists think may be a delta ― a fan-shaped network ofchannels and sediments where a river once flowed into a larger body of water,in this case a lake filling a crater in the southern highlands.

【解析】

在该句中,a fan-shaped network of channels andsedimentsa delta的同位语,它们都是名词,并且afan-shaped network of channels and sediments后有一个后置定语从句来修饰。

【答案】

A 2003 Mars Global Surveyor image showswhat mission specialists think may be a delta ― a fan-shaped network ofchannels and sediments [where a river once flowed into a larger body of water,in this case a lake filling a crater in the southern highlands].


2 同位语从句

同位语难也是主要难在同位语从句上。同位语从句指的是在复合句中充当同位语的从句,属于名词性从句(详见3.2)。只不过这些可以跟同位语从句的名词是一些特定的抽象名词,newsideafactsuggestion等,例如,I heard the news that our team had won。值得注意的是,that连接从句时从句为一个句意完整的陈述句。that不能省略,没有具体的意思,不充当句子成分,只起连接作用。

处理方法也如同定语从句的处理方法,但后面的从句成分完整,直接把该句分解为I heardthe newsour team had won两个句子即可。


1.

The incentive of the farmers who wish to conservewater is reduced by their knowledge that many of their neighbors are profitingby using great amounts of water, and in the process are drawing down the entireregion’s water supplies.

【解析】

在该句中,同位语从句that many of their neighbors怎么预防成年癫痫病才更有效果 areprofiting by using great amounts of water作抽象名词theirknowledge的同位语。

【答案】

The incentive of the farmers who wish toconserve water is reduced by their knowledge [that many of their neighbors areprofiting by using great amounts of water], and in the process are drawing downthe entire region’s water supplies.

2.

The hypothesis that begging calls haveevolved properties that reduce their potential for attracting predators yieldsa prediction: baby birds of species that experience high rates of nestpredation should produce softer begging signals of higher frequency thannestlings of other species less often victimized by nest predators.

【解析】

在该句中,同位语从句that begging calls have evolvedproperties that reduce their potential for attracting predators作抽象名词The hypothesis的同位语。

【答案】

The hypothesis [that begging calls haveevolved properties that reduce their potential for attracting predators] yieldsa prediction: baby birds of species that experience high rates of nestpredation should produce softer begging signals of higher frequency thannestlings of other species less often victimized by nest predators.

在同位语从句里有一个特殊的语法现象:不像大部分的句子,主要的意思在主干里面。同位语从句的主干往往没有实质性的内容,最关键的信息反而是在从句之中(见3.5.5),这一点要特别注意。


3

There is growing evidence in New Zealandthat children from poorer socio-economic backgrounds are arriving at schoolless well developed and that our school system tends to perpetuate thatdisadvantage.

【解析】

该句主干为There is growing evidence in NewZealand。但是该句主干给出的意思相对比较少。主要意思在同位语从句that children frompoorer socio-economic backgrounds are arriving at school less well developedand that our school system tends to perpetuate that disadvantage中,从句中给出的信息更详细,需要特别注意。


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